ANTHROPOLOGY PAPER - II

1. Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization-Pre historic (Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic), Protohistoric (Indus Civilization). Vedic and post-Vedic beginnings. Contributions of the tribal cultures.
2. Demographic profile of India-Ethinic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution. Indian population, factors influencing its structure and growth.
3. The basic structure and nature of traditional Indian social system-a critique. Varnasharam, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth. Theories on the origin of caste system, Jajmani system. Structural basis of inequality in traditional Indian society. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on Indian society.
4. Emergence, growth and development of anthropology in India-contributions of the 19th Century and early 20th Century scholar-administrators. Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies. Contemporary nature of anthropological studies in India.
5. Approaches to the study of Indian society and culture-traditional and contemporary.
5.1 Aspects of Indian village-Social organisations of agriculture, impact of market economy on Indian villages.
5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities-social, political and economic status.
6. Tribal situation in India-biogenetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of the tribal populations and their distribution. Problems of the tribal Communities-land alienation, poverty indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, underemployment, health and nutrition. Developmental projects-tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation: Development of forest policy and tribals, Impact of urbanisation and industrialization on tribal and rural populations.
7. Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes. Social change and contemporary tribal societies: Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections. Emergence of ethnicity, tribal movements and quest for identity. Pseudo-tribalism.
8. Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.
8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and other religious on tribal societies.
8.2 Tribe and nation state-a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries.
9. History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation. Role of N.G.Os.
9.1 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.
9.2 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism and ethnic and political movements.